There are various admixtures have been used to produce a concrete with sufficient strength at a very early age.
Calcium chloride has been in the past a common set accelarator for this purpose. However, the presence of choloride causes serious problems regarding corrosion of reinforcing bars embeded in concrete. This has renewed interest to develop a number of chloride-free admixtures.
After many research, the effect of calcium nitrate(CN) additions on the setting characteristics of cements and the steel corrosion has been studied. Results obtained showed that calcium nitrate(CN) does function as a ser accelarator for cement between 7 and 20 degrees, but the set accelerating efficiency of calcium nitrate(CN) depends very much on cement types.
With the research, it was found that the addition of small amounts of higher tertiary alkanolamines such as triisopropanolamine (TIPA) can increase in the strengths of cement paste at different ages. The average 28-day strength improvement with 200 ppm TIPA added to the mix water was 10%.
Calcium nitrate alone acts as a setting accelerator, but has relatively little beneficial effect on the long term period development of mechanical resistances. Regardless of the cement type used, triisopropanolamine used alone performed well as a hardening accelerator at all ages. The combined addition of calcium nitrate and triisopropanolamine produced at very early age significant and promising results with respect to both setting and hardening acceleration.
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